Peterborough Medical Clinics - Respiratory Diseases are a term which encompasses different pathological conditions that affect the organs and tissues which make the gas exchange possible. The conditions which fit under the designation of a respiratory disease, include issues with the upper respiratory tract, bronchi, trachea, bronchioles, pleural cavity, alveoli, pleura as well as the muscles and nerves which are responsible for breathing. Respiratory diseases range from self-limiting and mild like the common cold for instance, to life-threatening conditions like for example lung cancer, pulmonary embolism, and bacterial pneumonia.
The study of Pulmonology focuses on respiratory diseases, while those specializing doctors in this area are known as a pulmonologist. Medical practitioners in this field might also be called: a thoracic medicine specialist, a respiratory medicine specialist, a respirologist and a chest medicine expert.
Respiratory diseases could be classified in a variety of different ways; either by the organ or tissue involved or by the type and pattern of connected symptoms and signs, or by the cause of the disease or etiology.
Inflammatory Lung Disease
This particular disease, that consists of acute respiratory distress syndrome, emphysema, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, are characterized by a high neutrophil count.
Allergic reactions are a common reason for acute respiratory disease. This is due to the exposure to various agents and foods. Common allergens which are found in foods could consist of radish, lemon, sea foods such as some fatty fish and prawns, peanuts, bananas, dairy and ice creams, pomegranates, arrowroot, lemon, berries and lady's finger. Climate may likewise affect several people since dusty and sandy climate during summer can make the quality of air poor for individuals who are sensitive.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
This grouping of diseases pertain to problems of the airways including the bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli. They become reduced in volume or else that have impeded the free flow of gas, making it more difficult to move air in and out of the lungs.
COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
COPD's such as asthma and different obstructive lung diseases, the airways have become damaged and allow them to narrow.
Restrictive Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases
Restrictive Lung Diseases are a category of respiratory disease which is characterized by a loss of lung compliance. These RLD's can result in increased lung stiffness and incomplete lung expansion. IRDS or also known as Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an instance.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Infections can affect any part of the respiratory system. They are usually divided into lower respiratory tract infections and upper respiratory tract infections.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common type of upper respiratory infection is the common cold. Infections of the upper respiratory tract specific organs could consist of pharyngitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, sinusitis and laryngitis are likewise in this category.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
Pneumonia is the most common lower respiratory tract infection. It is a lung infection normally caused by bacteria, normally Streptococcus in the Western world. Tuberculosis is a large reason for pneumonia throughout the world. Various viruses and fungi could lead to pneumonia as well, like for example acute respiratory syndrome and pneumocystic pneumonia.
Tumors in the respiratory system are either malignant or benign.
Pleural Cavity Diseases
Diseases of the pleural cavity consists of emphysema and mesothelioma. A collection of fluid in the pleural cavity is called a pleural effusion. This can be due to situations like cirrhosis and congestive heart failure, because the fluid from the bloodstream shifts into the pleural cavity. Diseases here can likewise happen from pleura inflammation, TB, mesothelioma, pulmonary embolism and different conditions.
A hole in the pleura which covers the lung and allows air within the lung to escape into the pleural cavity is called a pneumothorax. In this instance, the affected lung collapses like a balloon which is inflated. A tension pneumothorax is a severe type of this where the air cannot escape in the pleural cavity and the pressure eventually gets bigger compressing the heart and blood vessels, resulting in a dangerous life-threatening situation.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
Conditions that affect the pulmonary circulation are known as Pulmonary Vascular Diseases. Various examples comprise: Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pulmonary edema and Pulmonary embolism.
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